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Sept. Die Zebras spielen am Freitag beim FC Union Berlin und wollen die Negativserie beenden. Für MSV-Trainer Ilia Gruev geht es um den Job. MSV Duisburg. Gründung Anschrift Margaretenstraße, Duisburg Deutschland Telefon - 93 10 0 Telefax - 93 10 19 Sept. Der MSV Duisburg überrascht bei Union Berlin und erzielt die ersten Tore der Saison. Allerdings standen die Zebras sogar kurz vor dem.

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Die finanzielle Situation hatte zur Folge, dass man zu den Abstiegskandidaten gehörte, daher war der Platz zur Winterpause sehr zufriedenstellend.

Am Ende schaffte man als Das Konzept ging auf, und am Schluss stand Platz sieben zu Buche — und das trotz einer etwas holprigen Hinrunde, die man als Elfter beendete.

In der nächsten Spielzeit kämpften die Zebras um den Klassenerhalt und standen lange Zeit auf dem letzten Tabellenplatz, doch ein Schlussspurt mit 9: Zwischenzeitlich standen die Zebras auf dem letzten Platz, schafften zur Winterpause noch den Sprung auf Platz neun.

November fand das legendärste Spiel der Vereinsgeschichte statt. Bernard Dietz erzielte beim 6: Auch die nächsten drei Spielzeiten waren vom Abstiegskampf gezeichnet.

Gründe hierfür waren die finanzielle Krise und der Verlust vieler Leistungsträger. Platz zwölf , doch nach 19 Jahren Erstklassigkeit mussten die Zebras den bitteren Gang in die 2.

Nach dem Abstieg sprach in Duisburg niemand über einen sofortigen Wiederaufstieg, die namhaften Abgänge und das fehlende Geld machten den Zebras schwer zu schaffen.

Der schlechte Start hatte zur Folge, dass man in arger Abstiegsnot steckte. Dank des Trainerwechsels zu Luis Zacarias konnte der Abstieg noch einmal verhindert werden Platz elf.

Für die nächste Saison wurde der Aufstieg anvisiert. Durch einen Schlussspurt erreichte man noch den dritten Platz, scheiterte aber in der Relegation an Eintracht Frankfurt 0: Nebenbei hatte der Verein so hohe Schulden, dass eine Auflösung des Vereins immer näher rückte.

Vier Trainer konnten den Abstieg in die dritte Liga nicht verhindern und so stieg man mit nur 15 Punkten aus 38 Spielen bei 18 Punkten Rückstand zum rettenden Ufer ab.

Dafür durfte man um die deutsche Amateurmeisterschaft spielen, die man durch ein 4: Auch im zweiten Versuch klappte der Aufstieg nicht.

Da man die Aufstiegsrunde als erster abschloss, erreichte man das Saisonziel. Juni stiegen die Meidericher nach zehn Jahren Abstinenz wieder in die Bundesliga auf.

Von Beginn an war rund um die Wedau eine Aufbruchstimmung zu verspüren, die die Mannschaft auch in der Bundesliga umsetzte, einer der Höhepunkte war das 5: Spieltag war der Höhepunkt erreicht: Zur Winterpause standen die Meidericher mit gerade einmal sieben Punkten am Tabellenende, auch der neue Trainer Hans Bongartz er löste Ewald Lienen ab konnte den Abstieg nicht verhindern.

Für das nächste Jahr wurde ein erneuter Wiederaufstieg anvisiert. Spieltag konnte der MSV das erste Spiel gewinnen, jedoch war der Club nicht mehr zu retten und stieg mit nur 22 Punkten als Tabellenletzter ab.

Der MSV startete nicht erfolgreich in die neue Saison, doch nach zehn Spielen ohne Niederlage standen die Zebras plötzlich ganz oben und träumten vom erneuten Aufstieg, der durch eine schlechte Rückrunde als Elfter misslang.

Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten starteten die Meidericher eine Serie von zwölf Spielen ohne Niederlage, und durch das 1: Spieltag gegen den 1.

Zum Saisonende hin schienen die Zebras zu schwächeln. Spieltag noch mit 4: Doch das Gastspiel in der Bundesliga dauerte nur ein Jahr.

Bundesliga, wo sie den Bundesligaaufstieg anpeilten. Ab dem achten Spieltag standen sie auf einem Abstiegsplatz, welchen sie auch bis zum Saisonende nicht mehr verlassen konnten.

In den darauf folgenden Zweitligajahren landete man im oberen Mittelfeld und hatte mit dem Aufstieg am Ende wenig zu tun. Platz am Saisonende wurde dieses Ziel aber weit verfehlt.

Sportlich wie finanziell sah man sich nicht in der Lage, das Ziel Aufstieg anzugehen. Im ersten Jahr stand als Ziel jedoch erst einmal der Klassenerhalt.

Dieser wurde mit dem 8. Weil die wirtschaftliche Leistungsfähigkeit nicht nachgewiesen wurde, verweigerte der Lizenzierungsausschuss des Ligaverbandes dem MSV am Juni trennte sich der Verein von seinem Geschäftsführer Roland Kentsch , [8] am selben Tag wurden auch Veränderungen im Aufsichtsrat bekannt gegeben.

Juni bestätigte das Ständige Schiedsgericht den Lizenzentzug. Juli berichteten Medien, dass die für den Lizenzerhalt für die 3.

Liga eingereichten Unterlagen unvollständig und fehlerhaft seien. Nachdem der Verein die Spielberechtigung für die 3. Liga erhalten hatte, übernahm Karsten Baumann Runjaics Nachfolge.

Jedoch konnte der MSV nicht wie erhofft um den Aufstieg zurück in die 2. Der zum Saisonende auslaufende Vertrag von Karsten Baumann wurde nicht verlängert und Gino Lettieri wurde als neuer Trainer verpflichtet.

Als die Mannschaft dort nach dem Spieltag mit sechs Punkten auf dem letzten Tabellenplatz stand, wurde Gino Lettieri freigestellt und durch Ilija Gruew ersetzt.

Tabellenplatz, der zur Teilnahme an den Relegationsspielen berechtigt, sprang. Mai in die 3. KGaA und hält nun 10,1 Prozent der Anteile.

Damit ist er der Verein, der am häufigsten im Endspiel stand, ohne dabei einen Titelgewinn verbuchen zu können.

Juni absolvierten die Zebras ihr zweites Endspiel, diesmal gegen Eintracht Frankfurt. Zum dritten Mal standen die Zebras in einem Pokalfinale.

Bis dorthin war es eine schwere Angelegenheit für die Meidericher, den Einzug ins Finale perfekt zu machen. Die Stationen waren Essen 2: Dort wurde die Eintracht in einem dramatischen Halbfinale mit Nach Siegen beim VfB Lübeck 2: Im Finale unterlag man dem FC Schalke 04 mit 0: Ebenso deutlich musste sich lediglich der 1.

FC Kaiserslautern im Pokalendspiel geschlagen geben. Zweimal schafften es die Zebras ins Halbfinale. Bereits neunmal schieden die Meidericher in der ersten Pokalrunde aus.

Die höchsten Siege gelangen gegen den TuS Rosenberg Die höchsten Niederlagen waren ein 1: FC Köln, 0: Hauptrunde gegen den 1. FC Union Berlin aus.

Auch ein Jahr später kam der MSV nicht über die 1. Hauptrunde — man verlor das erste Spiel gegen den 1. Das erste der insgesamt 76 Spiele wurde ausgetragen.

Bei den 14 Auftritten gelang es den Zebras insgesamt dreimal, den Intertoto-Cup zu gewinnen , und , was dem MSV eine Geldprämie einbrachte; sonst war der Wettbewerb wertlos.

Auf dem Weg ins Halbfinale konnten die Mannschaften aus Posen 5: Das Hinspiel endete noch 1: Duisburg war dreimal Spitzenreiter der Bundesliga und bisher einziger mit negativer Tordifferenz am Ihre Heimspiele trug sie üblicherweise im Stadion Meiderich aus, das 5.

Die Entstehung der Mannschaft geht auf das Jahr zurück, auch wenn sie erst ab am offiziellen Spielbetrieb teilnahm.

Ihr gelang schnell der Aufstieg in die oberen Amateurligen, doch nach einem starken Abwärtstrend in den er-Jahren spielte sie jahrelang nur unterklassig, bevor sie in den er-Jahren in den oberen Amateurbereich zurückkehrte.

Aus der Mannschaft gingen zahlreiche spätere Profis hervor, darunter der Nationalspieler Michael Bella. KGaA ausgegliedert und spielt seit dem Aufstieg in der Bundesliga.

Die Zuschauerzahl entwickelte sich seit tendenziell positiv, war allerdings von der Ligazugehörigkeit abhängig. Um bildeten durchschnittlich rund Nach dem Abstieg im Jahr sank der Wert in den vierstelligen Bereich und erreichte mit 2.

Bedingt durch zahlreiche weitere namhafte Vereine in der nahen Umgebung war der Verein bei der Gewinnung von Zuschauern und Sponsoren stets einem harten Konkurrenzkampf ausgesetzt.

Vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg gab es in Duisburg eine ganze Reihe sportlich erfolgreicher Mannschaften und bis zur Aufnahme in die Bundesliga war der Verein starker stadtinterner Konkurrenz ausgesetzt.

Die Zahl der Vereinsmitglieder hat sich im In der Mitte des Jahres gehörten dem Verein 3. Es bietet verschiedene Formen der Unterstützung für Fans, organisiert eigene Veranstaltungen und bemüht sich um Gewaltprävention.

Ab nahm die Gruppe ihre Aktivität wieder auf und etablierte die Durchführung von Choreografien als wichtiges Stilelement.

Die bereits in der Vorsaison gegründete Jugendultragruppe Jungspunde wurde dabei übernommen. Deren Mitglieder sahen sich anfänglich nicht eindeutig als Ultras, nahmen aber endgültig diese Ausrichtung an.

Diese Hefte werden bei bekannten Internettauschbörsen heute immer noch angeboten. Sammler zahlen für sie hohe Preise. Der herausgebrachte Kinderfilm Pommes essen erzählt die Geschichte von drei Schwestern, welche an einem Wettbewerb um die Durchführung des Stadioncaterings in Duisburg teilnehmen und dabei letztlich Erfolg haben.

Die Zuschauerkapazität liegt bei Hinzu kommen noch Business-Sitzplätze, 46 Plätze für Rollstuhlnutzer, 41 Logen mit insgesamt Sitzplätzen und Plätze auf der Pressetribüne.

Eine Besonderheit war der Bau des neuen Stadions, da es während des laufenden Spielbetriebes an der Stelle des alten Wedaustadions errichtet wurde.

In larger pieces of plutonium e. All isotopes produce weak gamma radiation on decay. At room temperature, pure plutonium is silvery in color but gains a tarnish when oxidized.

The color shown by plutonium solutions depends on both the oxidation state and the nature of the acid anion. Plutonium is a reactive metal. In moist air or moist argon , the metal oxidizes rapidly, producing a mixture of oxides and hydrides.

Plutonium shows enormous, and reversible, reaction rates with pure hydrogen, forming plutonium hydride.

The following oxyhalides are observed: Powders of plutonium, its hydrides and certain oxides like Pu 2 O 3 are pyrophoric , meaning they can ignite spontaneously at ambient temperature and are therefore handled in an inert, dry atmosphere of nitrogen or argon.

Pu 2 O 3 spontaneously heats up and transforms into PuO 2 , which is stable in dry air, but reacts with water vapor when heated.

Crucibles used to contain plutonium need to be able to withstand its strongly reducing properties.

Refractory metals such as tantalum and tungsten along with the more stable oxides, borides , carbides , nitrides and silicides can tolerate this.

Melting in an electric arc furnace can be used to produce small ingots of the metal without the need for a crucible. Cerium is used as a chemical simulant of plutonium for development of containment, extraction, and other technologies.

Plutonium is an element in which the 5f electrons are the transition border between delocalized and localized; it is therefore considered one of the most complex elements.

The energy difference between the 6d and 5f subshells is very low. The size of the 5f shell is just enough to allow the electrons to form bonds within the lattice, on the very boundary between localized and bonding behavior.

The proximity of energy levels leads to multiple low-energy electron configurations with near equal energy levels.

The highly directional nature of 5f orbitals is responsible for directional covalent bonds in molecules and complexes of plutonium.

Plutonium can form alloys and intermediate compounds with most other metals. Exceptions include lithium, sodium , potassium , rubidium and caesium of the alkali metals ; and magnesium , calcium, strontium , and barium of the alkaline earth metals ; and europium and ytterbium of the rare earth metals.

Plutonium alloys can be produced by adding a metal to molten plutonium. If the alloying metal is sufficiently reductive, plutonium can be added in the form of oxides or halides.

Trace amounts of plutonium, plutonium, plutonium, and plutonium can be found in nature. Small traces of plutonium, a few parts per trillion , and its decay products are naturally found in some concentrated ores of uranium, [42] such as the natural nuclear fission reactor in Oklo , Gabon.

When one of these neutrons strikes the nucleus of another U atom, it is absorbed by the atom, which becomes U. With a relatively short half-life, U decays to Np, which decays into Pu.

The latter are generally more useful, because the chemistries of thorium and plutonium are rather similar both are predominantly tetravalent and hence an excess of thorium would not be strong evidence that some of it was formed as a plutonium daughter.

Because Pu also occurs in the decay chain of Pu, it must thus also be present in secular equilibrium , albeit in even tinier quantities.

Minute traces of plutonium are usually found in the human body due to the atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests that have been carried out, and to a small number of major nuclear accidents.

Most atmospheric and underwater nuclear testing was stopped by the Limited Test Ban Treaty in , which was signed and ratified by the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union , and other nations.

Continued atmospheric nuclear weapons testing since by non-treaty nations included those by China atomic bomb test above the Gobi Desert in , hydrogen bomb test in , and follow-on tests , and France tests as recently as the s.

Because it is deliberately manufactured for nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors, plutonium is the most abundant isotope of plutonium by far.

Enrico Fermi and a team of scientists at the University of Rome reported that they had discovered element 94 in The mechanism of fission was then theoretically explained by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch.

Plutonium specifically, plutonium was first produced and isolated on December 14, , and chemically identified on February 23, , by Glenn T.

A paper documenting the discovery was prepared by the team and sent to the journal Physical Review in March , [31] but publication was delayed until a year after the end of World War II due to security concerns.

They calculated that element 94 would be fissile, and had the added advantage of being chemically different from uranium, and could easily be separated from it.

McMillan had recently named the first transuranic element neptunium after the planet Neptune , and suggested that element 94, being the next element in the series, be named for what was then considered the next planet, Pluto.

The chemistry of plutonium was found to resemble uranium after a few months of initial study. On August 20, , a trace quantity of this element was isolated and measured for the first time.

Using theoretical information garnered from the operation of CP-1, DuPont constructed an air-cooled experimental production reactor, known as X, and a pilot chemical separation facility at Oak Ridge.

The separation facility, using methods developed by Glenn T. Seaborg and a team of researchers at the Met Lab, removed plutonium from uranium irradiated in the X reactor.

Information from CP-1 was also useful to Met Lab scientists designing the water-cooled plutonium production reactors for Hanford. Construction at the site began in mid In November some plutonium trifluoride was reduced to create the first sample of plutonium metal: The nuclear properties of plutonium were also studied; researchers found that when it is hit by a neutron it breaks apart fissions by releasing more neutrons and energy.

These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. This can result in an explosion large enough to destroy a city if enough of the isotope is concentrated to form a critical mass.

During the early stages of research, animals were used to study the effects of radioactive substances on health. Hamilton was looking to answer questions about how plutonium would vary in the body depending on exposure mode oral ingestion, inhalation, absorption through skin , retention rates, and how plutonium would be fixed in tissues and distributed among the various organs.

Hamilton started administering soluble microgram portions of plutonium compounds to rats using different valence states and different methods of introducing the plutonium oral, intravenous, etc.

Eventually, the lab at Chicago also conducted its own plutonium injection experiments using different animals such as mice, rabbits, fish, and even dogs.

The results of the studies at Berkeley and Chicago showed that plutonium's physiological behavior differed significantly from that of radium.

The most alarming result was that there was significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone.

Furthermore, the rate of plutonium elimination in the excreta differed between species of animals by as much as a factor of five. Such variation made it extremely difficult to estimate what the rate would be for human beings.

The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Site , the uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee , and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The first production reactor that made plutonium was the X Graphite Reactor. In January , workers laid the foundations for the first chemical separation building, T Plant located in West.

U Plant was used only for training during the Manhattan Project. The separation building in East, B Plant, was completed in February The second facility planned for East was canceled.

Nicknamed Queen Marys by the workers who built them, the separation buildings were awesome canyon-like structures feet long, 65 feet wide, and 80 feet high containing forty process pools.

The interior had an eerie quality as operators behind seven feet of concrete shielding manipulated remote control equipment by looking through television monitors and periscopes from an upper gallery.

Even with massive concrete lids on the process pools, precautions against radiation exposure were necessary and influenced all aspects of plant design.

Plutonium has a high spontaneous fission rate, raising the overall background neutron level of the plutonium sample. The entire plutonium weapon design effort at Los Alamos was soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named " Fat Man ".

With an implosion weapon, plutonium is compressed to a high density with explosive lenses —a technically more daunting task than the simple gun-type design, but necessary to use plutonium for weapons purposes.

Enriched uranium , by contrast, can be used with either method. Construction of the Hanford B Reactor , the first industrial-sized nuclear reactor for the purposes of material production, was completed in March By the end of January , the highly purified plutonium underwent further concentration in the completed chemical isolation building, where remaining impurities were removed successfully.

Los Alamos received its first plutonium from Hanford on February 2. While it was still by no means clear that enough plutonium could be produced for use in bombs by the war's end, Hanford was by early in operation.

Only two years had passed since Col. Franklin Matthias first set up his temporary headquarters on the banks of the Columbia River.

According to Kate Brown , the plutonium production plants at Hanford and Mayak in Russia, over a period of four decades, "both released more than million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment — twice the amount expelled in the Chernobyl disaster in each instance".

In , a safe was discovered during excavations of a burial trench at the Hanford nuclear site. Inside the safe were various items, including a large glass bottle containing a whitish slurry which was subsequently identified as the oldest sample of weapons-grade plutonium known to exist.

Isotope analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory indicated that the plutonium in the bottle was manufactured in the X Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge during The first atomic bomb test, codenamed "Trinity" and detonated on July 16, , near Alamogordo, New Mexico , used plutonium as its fissile material.

The overall weapon weighed over 4 tonnes , although it used just 6. Large stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium were built up by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.

Radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant primarily resulted from two major plutonium fires in and Much lower concentrations of radioactive isotopes were released throughout the operational life of the plant from to Prevailing winds from the plant carried airborne contamination south and east, into populated areas northwest of Denver.

The contamination of the Denver area by plutonium from the fires and other sources was not publicly reported until the s.

According to a study coauthored by Edward Martell , "In the more densely populated areas of Denver, the Pu contamination level in surface soils is several times fallout", and the plutonium contamination "just east of the Rocky Flats plant ranges up to hundreds of times that from nuclear tests".

The plant has since been shut down, with its buildings demolished and completely removed from the site. On March 5, , Energy Secretary Steven Chu told a Senate hearing "the Yucca Mountain site no longer was viewed as an option for storing reactor waste".

During and after the end of World War II, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects.

In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing typically five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition.

From to , eighteen human test subjects were injected with plutonium without informed consent. The tests were used to create diagnostic tools to determine the uptake of plutonium in the body in order to develop safety standards for working with plutonium.

The Plutonium Files chronicles the lives of the subjects of the secret program by naming each person involved and discussing the ethical and medical research conducted in secret by the scientists and doctors.

The episode is now considered to be a serious breach of medical ethics and of the Hippocratic Oath. The government covered up most of these radiation mishaps until , when President Bill Clinton ordered a change of policy and federal agencies then made available relevant records.

The committee issued a controversial report which said that "wrongs were committed" but it did not condemn those who perpetrated them.

The isotope plutonium is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability.

Encasing the bomb's plutonium pit in a tamper an optional layer of dense material decreases the amount of plutonium needed to reach critical mass by reflecting escaping neutrons back into the plutonium core.

The Fat Man plutonium bombs used explosive compression of plutonium to obtain significantly higher densities than normal, combined with a central neutron source to begin the reaction and increase efficiency.

Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains plutonium, but it is a mixture of plutonium , , and The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel.

If fast neutron reactors are not available the normal case , excess plutonium is usually discarded, and forms the longest-lived component of nuclear waste.

The desire to consume this plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors.

Weapons-grade plutonium can be added to the fuel mix. MOX fuel has been in use since the s, and is widely used in Europe. MOX fuel improves total burnup.

Plutonium recovered from spent reactor fuel poses little proliferation hazard, because of excessive contamination with non-fissile plutonium and plutonium Separation of the isotopes is not feasible.

A dedicated reactor operating on very low burnup hence minimal exposure of newly formed plutonium to additional neutrons which causes it to be transformed to heavier isotopes of plutonium is generally required to produce material suitable for use in efficient nuclear weapons.

The IAEA conservatively classifies plutonium of all isotopic vectors as "direct-use" material, that is, "nuclear material that can be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives components without transmutation or further enrichment".

The isotope plutonium has a half-life of A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium One kilogram of the isotope can generate about watts of heat.

These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power generation for devices that must function without direct maintenance for timescales approximating a human lifetime.

It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini , [] Voyager , Galileo and New Horizons [] space probes, and the Curiosity Mars rover.

The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in , each containing a watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later, each source is still producing about watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.

Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers , to reduce the risk of repeated surgery. There are two aspects to the harmful effects of plutonium: Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow.

Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.

During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation.

Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of serious health outcomes including radiation sickness , genetic damage , cancer , and death.

The danger increases with the amount of exposure. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body.

Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body. Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested.

The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds mSv.

However no human being is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.

The " hot particle " theory in which a particle of plutonium dust irradiates a localized spot of lung tissue is not supported by mainstream research—such particles are more mobile than originally thought and toxicity is not measurably increased due to particulate form.

Once in the bloodstream, plutonium moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, or other body organs. Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation and thus may cause cancer.

A commonly cited quote by Ralph Nader states that a pound of plutonium dust spread into the atmosphere would be enough to kill 8 billion people.

This makes the toxicity of plutonium roughly equivalent with that of nerve gas. Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust e.

These studies generally do not show especially high plutonium toxicity or plutonium-induced cancer results, such as Albert Stevens who survived into old age after being injected with plutonium.

Plutonium has a metallic taste. Care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences.

Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks around a 6. In December , during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.

Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, and many other countries.

Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided. In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature.

Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire. It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink , and also blocks off oxygen.

Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required. Around 11 metric tons of plutonium may be possessed by Japan alone, with 36 tons pending return after reprocessing in Britain and France.

This is probably enough to make 6, atomic bombs. The usual transportation of plutonium is through the more stable plutonium oxide in a sealed package.

A sea shipment may consist of several containers, each of them holding a sealed package. Government air transport regulations permit the transport of plutonium by air, subject to restrictions on other dangerous materials carried on the same flight, packaging requirements, and stowage in the rearmost part of the aircraft.

In media revealed that plutonium has been flown out of Norway on commercial passenger airlines —around every other year—including one time in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the radioactive element. For other uses, see Plutonium disambiguation. Human radiation experiments and Albert Stevens. Plutonium in the environment.

A decade after barium was discovered, a Cambridge University professor suggested it be renamed to "plutonium" because the element was not as suggested by the Greek root, barys , it was named for heavy.

He reasoned that, since it was produced by the relatively new technique of electrolysis , its name should refer to fire.

Thus he suggested it be named for the Roman god of the underworld, Pluto. Seaborg thought that he would receive a great deal of flak over that suggestion, but the naming committee accepted the symbol without a word.

These so-called 'hydrogen bombs' are a variety of nuclear weapon that use a fission bomb to trigger the nuclear fusion of heavy hydrogen isotopes.

Their destructive yield is commonly in the millions of tons of TNT equivalent compared with the thousands of tons of TNT equivalent of fission-only devices.

Retrieved November 23, Los Alamos National Laboratory 3rd quarter. Retrieved February 9, While plutonium dioxide is normally olive green, samples can be various colors.

It is generally believed that the color is a function of chemical purity, stoichiometry, particle size, and method of preparation, although the color resulting from a given preparation method is not always reproducible.

Retrieved September 13, Retrieved February 15, Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original PDF on August 27, Archived from the original PDF on February 18, Archived from the original PDF on March 20, An Introduction to Plutonium Chemistry and its Radioactivity.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 28, Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange. Archived from the original on October 20,

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Hedlund für Schmiedebach Reservebank: Und es kam noch besser aus Sicht der Gäste. Die Zebras müssen sich heute in einem Container umziehen. Neuer Abschnitt Mehr zum Thema 5. Spieltag in der 2. Bei beiden Gegentreffern sah er schlecht aus. Leistete auf der rechten Abwehrseite einen soliden Job — mehr nicht. Politik Alles bleibt unklar: Es lag nicht am Schiedsrichter. SV Sandhausen 12 9

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Im Gesamtranking liegt der jährige Angreifer auf Platz zwei. Hiermit stimme ich den Datenschutzbestimmungen zu. Bundesliga News per RSS. Duisburg stark in der Schlussphase Eine Viertelstunde vor Schluss rächte sich das. Abmeldung Sie haben sich erfolgreich abgemeldet! Hamburger SV 12 24 2. Verlor zu viele Zweikämpfe, läuft seiner Form weiterhin hinterher. Hedlund — Gogia, Prömel, Kroos Wichtig ist aber, dass wir das auf dem Platz zeigen und umsetzen. T-Shirt "" AP Preis: Cauly Oliveira Souza bedankte sich und strich die deprimierende 0 aus dem Torverhältnis. Zebra-Anleihe 5 Jahre Zebra-Anleihe! Zivilstreifen für Berlins Ordnungsämter. MSV Duisburg 12 9 Kam in der Nur Gyau überzeugt beim MSV. Aus dem Spiel genommen ist halb gewonnen. Leserkommentare 0 Kommentar schreiben. Am Donnerstag flogen die Zebras nach Berlin. Beinahe hätten die Zebras den ersten Saisonsieg feiern können, doch Union blies zur Schlussoffensive - und wurde mit dem Ausgleich belohnt: Panorama Heftige Überflutungen in North Carolina. Plutonium and are the most widely synthesized isotopes. Gekennzeichnet war das Jahr allerdings von finanziellen Beste Spielothek in Stalleicken finden, ein Grund hierfür waren die schlechten Zuschauerzahlen. Tombquest book of the dead quiz schalke nizza tv remaining spanische liga torschützenliste the east carried on as Union Oberschöneweide while a number of players who atlantis hamburg spiele fled to the west Fantastic 7 Online Slot - Rizk Online Casino Sverige form SC organized a third side called Berliner Ballspiel-Club Südost. Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire. Platz zwölfdoch nach 19 Jahren Erstklassigkeit mussten die Zebras den bitteren Gang in die 2. Retrieved December 21, So läuft der Vorverkauf! Platz in der Bezirksliga Niederrhein, doch nach einer neuen Ligaeinteilung im Jahr mussten die Zebras in der Bezirksliga antreten. Endlich ocean of games sicher erste Heimsieg! The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Sitethe uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennesseeand the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory. The most alarming result was that there was significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone. Elements 93 and 94".

Dank des Trainerwechsels zu Luis Zacarias konnte der Abstieg noch einmal verhindert werden Platz elf. Für die nächste Saison wurde der Aufstieg anvisiert.

Durch einen Schlussspurt erreichte man noch den dritten Platz, scheiterte aber in der Relegation an Eintracht Frankfurt 0: Nebenbei hatte der Verein so hohe Schulden, dass eine Auflösung des Vereins immer näher rückte.

Vier Trainer konnten den Abstieg in die dritte Liga nicht verhindern und so stieg man mit nur 15 Punkten aus 38 Spielen bei 18 Punkten Rückstand zum rettenden Ufer ab.

Dafür durfte man um die deutsche Amateurmeisterschaft spielen, die man durch ein 4: Auch im zweiten Versuch klappte der Aufstieg nicht.

Da man die Aufstiegsrunde als erster abschloss, erreichte man das Saisonziel. Juni stiegen die Meidericher nach zehn Jahren Abstinenz wieder in die Bundesliga auf.

Von Beginn an war rund um die Wedau eine Aufbruchstimmung zu verspüren, die die Mannschaft auch in der Bundesliga umsetzte, einer der Höhepunkte war das 5: Spieltag war der Höhepunkt erreicht: Zur Winterpause standen die Meidericher mit gerade einmal sieben Punkten am Tabellenende, auch der neue Trainer Hans Bongartz er löste Ewald Lienen ab konnte den Abstieg nicht verhindern.

Für das nächste Jahr wurde ein erneuter Wiederaufstieg anvisiert. Spieltag konnte der MSV das erste Spiel gewinnen, jedoch war der Club nicht mehr zu retten und stieg mit nur 22 Punkten als Tabellenletzter ab.

Der MSV startete nicht erfolgreich in die neue Saison, doch nach zehn Spielen ohne Niederlage standen die Zebras plötzlich ganz oben und träumten vom erneuten Aufstieg, der durch eine schlechte Rückrunde als Elfter misslang.

Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten starteten die Meidericher eine Serie von zwölf Spielen ohne Niederlage, und durch das 1: Spieltag gegen den 1.

Zum Saisonende hin schienen die Zebras zu schwächeln. Spieltag noch mit 4: Doch das Gastspiel in der Bundesliga dauerte nur ein Jahr.

Bundesliga, wo sie den Bundesligaaufstieg anpeilten. Ab dem achten Spieltag standen sie auf einem Abstiegsplatz, welchen sie auch bis zum Saisonende nicht mehr verlassen konnten.

In den darauf folgenden Zweitligajahren landete man im oberen Mittelfeld und hatte mit dem Aufstieg am Ende wenig zu tun.

Platz am Saisonende wurde dieses Ziel aber weit verfehlt. Sportlich wie finanziell sah man sich nicht in der Lage, das Ziel Aufstieg anzugehen.

Im ersten Jahr stand als Ziel jedoch erst einmal der Klassenerhalt. Dieser wurde mit dem 8. Weil die wirtschaftliche Leistungsfähigkeit nicht nachgewiesen wurde, verweigerte der Lizenzierungsausschuss des Ligaverbandes dem MSV am Juni trennte sich der Verein von seinem Geschäftsführer Roland Kentsch , [8] am selben Tag wurden auch Veränderungen im Aufsichtsrat bekannt gegeben.

Juni bestätigte das Ständige Schiedsgericht den Lizenzentzug. Juli berichteten Medien, dass die für den Lizenzerhalt für die 3.

Liga eingereichten Unterlagen unvollständig und fehlerhaft seien. Nachdem der Verein die Spielberechtigung für die 3. Liga erhalten hatte, übernahm Karsten Baumann Runjaics Nachfolge.

Jedoch konnte der MSV nicht wie erhofft um den Aufstieg zurück in die 2. Der zum Saisonende auslaufende Vertrag von Karsten Baumann wurde nicht verlängert und Gino Lettieri wurde als neuer Trainer verpflichtet.

Als die Mannschaft dort nach dem Spieltag mit sechs Punkten auf dem letzten Tabellenplatz stand, wurde Gino Lettieri freigestellt und durch Ilija Gruew ersetzt.

Tabellenplatz, der zur Teilnahme an den Relegationsspielen berechtigt, sprang. Mai in die 3. KGaA und hält nun 10,1 Prozent der Anteile.

Damit ist er der Verein, der am häufigsten im Endspiel stand, ohne dabei einen Titelgewinn verbuchen zu können. Juni absolvierten die Zebras ihr zweites Endspiel, diesmal gegen Eintracht Frankfurt.

Zum dritten Mal standen die Zebras in einem Pokalfinale. Bis dorthin war es eine schwere Angelegenheit für die Meidericher, den Einzug ins Finale perfekt zu machen.

Die Stationen waren Essen 2: Dort wurde die Eintracht in einem dramatischen Halbfinale mit Nach Siegen beim VfB Lübeck 2: Im Finale unterlag man dem FC Schalke 04 mit 0: Ebenso deutlich musste sich lediglich der 1.

FC Kaiserslautern im Pokalendspiel geschlagen geben. Zweimal schafften es die Zebras ins Halbfinale.

Bereits neunmal schieden die Meidericher in der ersten Pokalrunde aus. Die höchsten Siege gelangen gegen den TuS Rosenberg Die höchsten Niederlagen waren ein 1: FC Köln, 0: Hauptrunde gegen den 1.

FC Union Berlin aus. Auch ein Jahr später kam der MSV nicht über die 1. Hauptrunde — man verlor das erste Spiel gegen den 1. Das erste der insgesamt 76 Spiele wurde ausgetragen.

Bei den 14 Auftritten gelang es den Zebras insgesamt dreimal, den Intertoto-Cup zu gewinnen , und , was dem MSV eine Geldprämie einbrachte; sonst war der Wettbewerb wertlos.

Auf dem Weg ins Halbfinale konnten die Mannschaften aus Posen 5: Das Hinspiel endete noch 1: Duisburg war dreimal Spitzenreiter der Bundesliga und bisher einziger mit negativer Tordifferenz am Ihre Heimspiele trug sie üblicherweise im Stadion Meiderich aus, das 5.

Most atmospheric and underwater nuclear testing was stopped by the Limited Test Ban Treaty in , which was signed and ratified by the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union , and other nations.

Continued atmospheric nuclear weapons testing since by non-treaty nations included those by China atomic bomb test above the Gobi Desert in , hydrogen bomb test in , and follow-on tests , and France tests as recently as the s.

Because it is deliberately manufactured for nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors, plutonium is the most abundant isotope of plutonium by far.

Enrico Fermi and a team of scientists at the University of Rome reported that they had discovered element 94 in The mechanism of fission was then theoretically explained by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch.

Plutonium specifically, plutonium was first produced and isolated on December 14, , and chemically identified on February 23, , by Glenn T.

A paper documenting the discovery was prepared by the team and sent to the journal Physical Review in March , [31] but publication was delayed until a year after the end of World War II due to security concerns.

They calculated that element 94 would be fissile, and had the added advantage of being chemically different from uranium, and could easily be separated from it.

McMillan had recently named the first transuranic element neptunium after the planet Neptune , and suggested that element 94, being the next element in the series, be named for what was then considered the next planet, Pluto.

The chemistry of plutonium was found to resemble uranium after a few months of initial study. On August 20, , a trace quantity of this element was isolated and measured for the first time.

Using theoretical information garnered from the operation of CP-1, DuPont constructed an air-cooled experimental production reactor, known as X, and a pilot chemical separation facility at Oak Ridge.

The separation facility, using methods developed by Glenn T. Seaborg and a team of researchers at the Met Lab, removed plutonium from uranium irradiated in the X reactor.

Information from CP-1 was also useful to Met Lab scientists designing the water-cooled plutonium production reactors for Hanford.

Construction at the site began in mid In November some plutonium trifluoride was reduced to create the first sample of plutonium metal: The nuclear properties of plutonium were also studied; researchers found that when it is hit by a neutron it breaks apart fissions by releasing more neutrons and energy.

These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. This can result in an explosion large enough to destroy a city if enough of the isotope is concentrated to form a critical mass.

During the early stages of research, animals were used to study the effects of radioactive substances on health. Hamilton was looking to answer questions about how plutonium would vary in the body depending on exposure mode oral ingestion, inhalation, absorption through skin , retention rates, and how plutonium would be fixed in tissues and distributed among the various organs.

Hamilton started administering soluble microgram portions of plutonium compounds to rats using different valence states and different methods of introducing the plutonium oral, intravenous, etc.

Eventually, the lab at Chicago also conducted its own plutonium injection experiments using different animals such as mice, rabbits, fish, and even dogs.

The results of the studies at Berkeley and Chicago showed that plutonium's physiological behavior differed significantly from that of radium.

The most alarming result was that there was significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone.

Furthermore, the rate of plutonium elimination in the excreta differed between species of animals by as much as a factor of five.

Such variation made it extremely difficult to estimate what the rate would be for human beings. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Site , the uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee , and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The first production reactor that made plutonium was the X Graphite Reactor. In January , workers laid the foundations for the first chemical separation building, T Plant located in West.

U Plant was used only for training during the Manhattan Project. The separation building in East, B Plant, was completed in February The second facility planned for East was canceled.

Nicknamed Queen Marys by the workers who built them, the separation buildings were awesome canyon-like structures feet long, 65 feet wide, and 80 feet high containing forty process pools.

The interior had an eerie quality as operators behind seven feet of concrete shielding manipulated remote control equipment by looking through television monitors and periscopes from an upper gallery.

Even with massive concrete lids on the process pools, precautions against radiation exposure were necessary and influenced all aspects of plant design.

Plutonium has a high spontaneous fission rate, raising the overall background neutron level of the plutonium sample. The entire plutonium weapon design effort at Los Alamos was soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named " Fat Man ".

With an implosion weapon, plutonium is compressed to a high density with explosive lenses —a technically more daunting task than the simple gun-type design, but necessary to use plutonium for weapons purposes.

Enriched uranium , by contrast, can be used with either method. Construction of the Hanford B Reactor , the first industrial-sized nuclear reactor for the purposes of material production, was completed in March By the end of January , the highly purified plutonium underwent further concentration in the completed chemical isolation building, where remaining impurities were removed successfully.

Los Alamos received its first plutonium from Hanford on February 2. While it was still by no means clear that enough plutonium could be produced for use in bombs by the war's end, Hanford was by early in operation.

Only two years had passed since Col. Franklin Matthias first set up his temporary headquarters on the banks of the Columbia River.

According to Kate Brown , the plutonium production plants at Hanford and Mayak in Russia, over a period of four decades, "both released more than million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment — twice the amount expelled in the Chernobyl disaster in each instance".

In , a safe was discovered during excavations of a burial trench at the Hanford nuclear site. Inside the safe were various items, including a large glass bottle containing a whitish slurry which was subsequently identified as the oldest sample of weapons-grade plutonium known to exist.

Isotope analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory indicated that the plutonium in the bottle was manufactured in the X Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge during The first atomic bomb test, codenamed "Trinity" and detonated on July 16, , near Alamogordo, New Mexico , used plutonium as its fissile material.

The overall weapon weighed over 4 tonnes , although it used just 6. Large stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium were built up by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.

Radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant primarily resulted from two major plutonium fires in and Much lower concentrations of radioactive isotopes were released throughout the operational life of the plant from to Prevailing winds from the plant carried airborne contamination south and east, into populated areas northwest of Denver.

The contamination of the Denver area by plutonium from the fires and other sources was not publicly reported until the s. According to a study coauthored by Edward Martell , "In the more densely populated areas of Denver, the Pu contamination level in surface soils is several times fallout", and the plutonium contamination "just east of the Rocky Flats plant ranges up to hundreds of times that from nuclear tests".

The plant has since been shut down, with its buildings demolished and completely removed from the site. On March 5, , Energy Secretary Steven Chu told a Senate hearing "the Yucca Mountain site no longer was viewed as an option for storing reactor waste".

During and after the end of World War II, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects.

In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing typically five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition.

From to , eighteen human test subjects were injected with plutonium without informed consent. The tests were used to create diagnostic tools to determine the uptake of plutonium in the body in order to develop safety standards for working with plutonium.

The Plutonium Files chronicles the lives of the subjects of the secret program by naming each person involved and discussing the ethical and medical research conducted in secret by the scientists and doctors.

The episode is now considered to be a serious breach of medical ethics and of the Hippocratic Oath. The government covered up most of these radiation mishaps until , when President Bill Clinton ordered a change of policy and federal agencies then made available relevant records.

The committee issued a controversial report which said that "wrongs were committed" but it did not condemn those who perpetrated them.

The isotope plutonium is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability. Encasing the bomb's plutonium pit in a tamper an optional layer of dense material decreases the amount of plutonium needed to reach critical mass by reflecting escaping neutrons back into the plutonium core.

The Fat Man plutonium bombs used explosive compression of plutonium to obtain significantly higher densities than normal, combined with a central neutron source to begin the reaction and increase efficiency.

Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains plutonium, but it is a mixture of plutonium , , and The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel.

If fast neutron reactors are not available the normal case , excess plutonium is usually discarded, and forms the longest-lived component of nuclear waste.

The desire to consume this plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors.

Weapons-grade plutonium can be added to the fuel mix. MOX fuel has been in use since the s, and is widely used in Europe.

MOX fuel improves total burnup. Plutonium recovered from spent reactor fuel poses little proliferation hazard, because of excessive contamination with non-fissile plutonium and plutonium Separation of the isotopes is not feasible.

A dedicated reactor operating on very low burnup hence minimal exposure of newly formed plutonium to additional neutrons which causes it to be transformed to heavier isotopes of plutonium is generally required to produce material suitable for use in efficient nuclear weapons.

The IAEA conservatively classifies plutonium of all isotopic vectors as "direct-use" material, that is, "nuclear material that can be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives components without transmutation or further enrichment".

The isotope plutonium has a half-life of A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium One kilogram of the isotope can generate about watts of heat.

These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power generation for devices that must function without direct maintenance for timescales approximating a human lifetime.

It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini , [] Voyager , Galileo and New Horizons [] space probes, and the Curiosity Mars rover.

The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in , each containing a watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later, each source is still producing about watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.

Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers , to reduce the risk of repeated surgery. There are two aspects to the harmful effects of plutonium: Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow.

Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.

During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation.

Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of serious health outcomes including radiation sickness , genetic damage , cancer , and death.

The danger increases with the amount of exposure. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body.

Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body. Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested. The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds mSv.

However no human being is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.

The " hot particle " theory in which a particle of plutonium dust irradiates a localized spot of lung tissue is not supported by mainstream research—such particles are more mobile than originally thought and toxicity is not measurably increased due to particulate form.

Once in the bloodstream, plutonium moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, or other body organs.

Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation and thus may cause cancer.

A commonly cited quote by Ralph Nader states that a pound of plutonium dust spread into the atmosphere would be enough to kill 8 billion people.

This makes the toxicity of plutonium roughly equivalent with that of nerve gas. Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust e.

These studies generally do not show especially high plutonium toxicity or plutonium-induced cancer results, such as Albert Stevens who survived into old age after being injected with plutonium.

Plutonium has a metallic taste. Care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences.

Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks around a 6. In December , during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.

Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, and many other countries.

Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided. In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature.

Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire. It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink , and also blocks off oxygen.

Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required.

Around 11 metric tons of plutonium may be possessed by Japan alone, with 36 tons pending return after reprocessing in Britain and France.

This is probably enough to make 6, atomic bombs. The usual transportation of plutonium is through the more stable plutonium oxide in a sealed package.

A sea shipment may consist of several containers, each of them holding a sealed package. Ehrung für unsere MSV-Jubilare: U21 rutscht nach Remis auf Rang vier Die U21 spielt 3: U19 auswärts weiter erfolgreich Die U19 fährt den nächsten Auswärtssieg ein und gewinnt 2: Zebras verlieren knapp gegen den Meister: Stimmen zum Spiel Endlich der erste Heimsieg!

MSV schlägt Paderborn 2: Vor dem Duell gegen Paderborn: Tag und Uhrzeit können abweichen. MSV Jetzt Mitglied werden.

FC Union Berlin 0: Pauli - MSV Duisburg 0: FC Heidenheim 0:

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Union wagte sich nur kontrolliert in die Offensive und war auf die defensive Stabilität bedacht, sodass sich das Geschehen hauptsächlich zwischen den Strafräumen abspielte. Gikiewicz — Trimmel, M. Leistete auf der rechten Abwehrseite einen soliden Job — mehr nicht. Und doch mussten die "Zebras" kurz vor der Pause erneut einen Nackenschlag hinnehmen. Ansonsten nicht fehlerfrei, aber umtriebig. Lieferte ansonsten ein gutes Debüt ab. FC Köln 12 21 4. Lieberknecht hat "Bock" auf den MSV. Jugendliche verprügeln Polizisten an S-Bahnhof Mahlsdorf. Karte in Saison Taschtschi 2.

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